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07. Points to consider when designing a CCTV System

A. Purpose of the CCTV System
  • Covert
  • Access Control
  • Event Recording
  • After Hours Monitoring
  • Crime Prevention
  • Industrial Monitoring
  • Improved Security
  • Industrial Safety
  • Management Tool
  • Vehicle or mobile
  • Post-Event Evidence Tool
  • Process Control
B. Budget
C. Cameras
  • B/W, Colour or Day/Night
  • Covert or Visible
  • Auto Iris (outdoors) or Manual Iris (stable lighting conditions)
  • Areas to be covered (by cameras)
  • Fixed or PTZ cameras
  • Location & purpose of each camera
  • Distance from the camera to the subject/scene
  • Angle of view required
  • Decide if camera housing needs to be used
  • Type of mounting required i.e pole, wall, ceiling, corner etc.
D. Power
  • Availability during required times of operation
  • Position in respect to camera position
  • Localize or centralize power to cameras i.e. power each camera individually or altogether from centralised place such as control room
  • Size of PSU is relevant to the number of cameras to be used off it
  • 12VDC or 220VAC operated equipment (i.e mobile applications)
  • Use of UPS?
E. Transmission of Video Signal
  • Via cable, i.e RG59U, Power-Ax, Twisted-Pair, Fiber-Optic or Wireless
  • Distance of signal transmission
  • Obstacles i.e sharp bends, high voltage equipment, roads/boundaries, different buildings
  • Protection of cabling against environment
F. Lighting
  • Amount of lighting during day & night
  • Direction of sun's position during day
  • Avoid placing cameras directly into sunlight
  • Constant or variable lighting conditions
  • Use of Infra-Red Illuminators/Cameras
  • Additional lighting needed?
  • Type of light source i.e flourescent, sodium, incandescent,
    tungsten, sunlight, moonlight, starlight, halogen, mercury vapour etc.
G. Environment
  • Indoor or Outdoor
  • Marine/Coastal Area
  • Vandal-Resistant
  • Variation in temperature
  • Need for Wiper/Washer Camera Housing
  • Intrinsically Safe
  • Highly Corrosive
  • Industrial
  • Hotel/Entertainment Industry
H. Monitoring and Recording Location
  • A central location to cut down on long cable runs
  • Sufficient clean power available with 24 hour operation
  • Safely secured in event of robbery or tampering by internal staff
  • Sufficient physical space available for equipment and the maintenance thereof
  • Use of recessed or reflective lighting with dimming control to prevent monitor glare
  • Monitor/s should be placed directly in line-of-sight of the operator in the seated position (no less than 1,5m away)
  • No more than 5 monitors per operator
  • Requirement for additional remote monitors in a seperate area?
I. Unmanned or Manned CCTV Site
  • If analog system, availability of staff to change tapes
  • PTZ cameras require an operator to be totally effective
J. Digital or Analog Recording
L. Communication Infrastructure and Bandwidth
  • Availability of ISDN, PSTN, DSL or leased line circuits
  • TCP/IP Routers
  • Bandwidth requirements for amount of cameras and frame rates required
  • Wireless or fixed network
M. Any Existing CCTV
  • Integration with existing speed domes, matrix or keyboard controller
  • Use of existing cabling?